NASA Apollo project Saturn V booster
History of the Saturn booster developmentBetween 1958 to 1960, before successful flight of Saturn I, Saturn IB, Saturn V boosters, many stage structures and the combinations has been studied. From the S-I : first stage to the S-V : fifth stage, it had been considered as a multi-stage rocket consisting of five boosters.
The configuration considered first was called Saturn A-1. On the S-I first stage, the first stage of Titan I booster is mounted as a second stage, Centaur is used as the third stage thereon. Saturn A-2 was designed with using bundled four Jupiter boosters as the second stage of the Saturn A-1.
Saturn B-1 is based on Saturn A-1. It is designed to replace the second stage by newly built stage mounting the four H-1 engines.
Saturn C-1 is a model that was flying as actual Saturn I. Use S-I as first stage, S-IV as a second stage. And equipped with a Centaur as third stage on it.
Saturn C-2 may use S-I as first stage, S-III as second stage, S-IV as third stage. And applies an S-V as a fourth stage by mission. S-III stage had been designed mounting two J-2 engines, and fuel the hydrozine and liquid oxygen.
Saturn C-3 is the final form of the Saturn booster. It uses S-I, S-II, S-III stage, and S-IV, S-V will added by mission. S-I stage of this form has been studied to enhance the thrust of original eight H-1 engines, or be replaced by one F-1 engine of center four H-1 engines.
NASA has decided to skip the development Saturn A, and B, to carry out the development of the Saturn C directly. However, they have changed the design to remove the S-III from Saturn C-2, mounting the S-II instead. Also Saturn C-3 were modified to mount four F-1 engines on the S-I stage. Saturn C-2, C-3 development was stopped thereafter. The design similar to the Saturn V (using S-I, S-II, S-IV) was confirmed as the Saturn C-4. Saturn C-5, which was reviewed the design of details, flew as actual Saturn V.
So Saturn C-1 was named Saturn I, Saturn C-5 was named Saturn V.
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