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American manned space program

Mercury Project
1959-1963
After launch of Sputnik, the space race between U.S.A. and U.S.S.R started. Mercury Project was the first manned space program in U.S.A. And it's objective are
  • To orbit a manned spacecraft around Earth
  • To investigate man's ability to function in space
  • To recover both man and spacecraft safely
Seven first astronauts were picked out from all over the U.S. They were called "The Right Stuff", and were set up as U.S. hero. But the world first manned space flight was done by U.S.S.R. Yurii Alekseevich Gagarin and Vostok spacecraft.
20 times unmanned flights and six manned flights were done, and basic space flight technology were confirmed.
Gemini Project
1964-1966
After launch of Sputnik, the space race between U.S.A. and U.S.S.R started. Mercury Project was the first manned space program in U.S.A. And it's objective are
  • To orbit a manned spacecraft around Earth
  • To investigate man's ability to function in space
  • To recover both man and spacecraft safely
Seven first astronauts were picked out from all over the U.S. They were called "The Right Stuff", and were set up as U.S. hero. But the world first manned space flight was done by U.S.S.R. Yurii Alekseevich Gagarin and Vostok spacecraft.
20 times unmanned flights and six manned flights were done, and basic space flight technology were confirmed.
Apollo Project
1961-1972
Then as an announcement of president Kennedy, Apollo reached to the moon face in the end of 1960th. There were many adversity. It was the grand sum of American space development.
Besides, Soviet went for the moon too with N-1 rocket. But the launch of N-1 failed four times, and the project was canceled.
SkyLab Project
1973
Using Apollo resources, this was a project of making laboratory(Lab) in the Earth orbit(Sky). S-IVB : the third stage of Saturn booster was converted to the Space station can live three astronauts for long term. Three launch were done and total nine astronauts live for 171 days and 13 hours, and hundreds of experimentation, investigation were performed.
But because of budget cutback, SkyLab flew with no crew for years and years. If the Space Shuttle project started earlier, more astronauts aboarded the SkyLab. But it was delayed, then orbit of SkyLab descented by atmospheric attrition, it went down to Indian Ocean and Australia in July 1979 at last.
Apollo-Soyuz Test Project
1975
After the space race, international alliance are needed for space development. So U.S.A. and U.S.S.R. planned to develop common rendezvous and docking system for future international alliance.
The device called "ASTP Docking Module" was attached to the top of Apollo CSM. This module connected between Apollo and Soyuz, absorbed difference of pneumatic pressure.
SpaceShuttle Project
1981-2011
SpaceShuttle was planned as low-cost, reusable spacecraft. Final design was decided in March 1972, but there were many new technologys to develop, like heat-stable tiles and so on, first flight was done in 1981. After that it brings lot of results like ISS : International Space Station and Hubble Space Telescope.
In 28.Jan.1986, OV-099 : Challenger at mission STS-51-L, exploded in the sky 73 second after the launch because of malfunction of SRB O-rings. Seven astronauts were lost.
In 01.Feb.2003, OV-102 : Columbia at mission STS-107, breaked down in the sky while re-entry, 16 minutes before landing. Seven astronauts were lost.
Next to the SpaceShuttle Project : Return to the Moon
On January 14, 2004, President Bush put NASA on a new course into the cosmos. The Vision for Space Exploration announced that day focused the agency on a bold new mission: landing humans on the moon before the end of the next decade, paving the way for eventual journeys to Mars and beyond.
Then Constellation project has been frozen once a matter of money, development of the spacecraft called Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle(MCPV), based on the Orion spacecraft was announced in 2011. While Orion spacecraft was aimed at manned flight to the moon and ISS, Such as asteroids and Mars, MCPV plan aims to manned flight to the more distant celestial body. The development of this spacecraft, Lockheed Martin Corp. Is responsible for continuously from Orion spacecraft. Similar to the Orion spacecraft, the appearance of this spacecraft has cone-shaped capsule base of 16.5 feet (5 m). Weight about 23 tons. It is possible to put the astronauts of four people at a time. When towards the asteroid and Mars, you may have to prepare a habitation module Apart from this, astronauts to live here. New booster called (SLS) Space Launch System will also be developed. For now, the first flight of around 2013, the start of the operation from around 2016 is planned.
But this project indicate the desperation of civilian's space travel using mass transport space ship. Commoner must abide space travel with riding outer space ballistic trajectory flight now planned by commercial space travel agency.
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クワイアットコンフォート20
クワイアットコンフォート20
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